Prostate Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment


Cancer is a disease in which cells divide and replicate abnormally, destroying the body tissues. Prostate Cancer is most common in men. The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that lies beneath the bladder in males. Prostate Cancer is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal growth of cells in the prostate gland. It affects the male reproductive system including the prostate, penis, testicles, and the seminal vesicles.


Though significant reasons for prostate cancer are not known. The aberrant behavior of male androgenic hormone hormones, mainly testosterone, leads to the cancer of prostate. Testosterone is a hormone responsible for sustaining prostate cells. Medical research claims that genetic factors, age, obesity, ethnicity, and family history are primary risk factors for prostate cancers. Age is the most common risk factor. There are high chances of cancer of prostate as a man grows older.

Testosterone’s irregular behavior leads to cancerous growth of prostate cells and affects the nerves responsible for ejaculation and erection, causing sexual dysfunction or impotence.


Initial Symptoms of cancer of prostate include

  • Frequent urination

  • Pain while urination

  • Burning sensation during urination

  • The interrupted flow of urine

  • Blood in the urine

  • Trouble while starting urination or emptying the bladder

  • Fatigue and incontinence

  • Difficulty and pain in ejaculation

Other symptoms include pain in the hips, pelvis, back, or ribs, along with the swollen lymph nodes in the groin area.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The cancers of prostate grow slowly and are relatively low risk. Prostate cancer, also known as prostatic adenocarcinoma, is diagnosed by prostate biopsy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and digital body rectal exam. Survival rates of the cancer measure high.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test is often employed in the screening of prostatic adenocarcinoma. PSA test measures the amount of PSA within the blood. The higher the amount of PSA in the blood, the more likely the cancer is present.

If the cancer is identified, different tests are done to determine if cancer cells are localized or widespread in other parts of the body. This method is named staging.

The treatment and diagnosis rely on cancer staging. Radiation, Chemotherapy, Cryotherapy, surgery, medicinal or anti-cancer drugs, and a healthy diet help treat the cancer. When the cancer is limited to the prostate, it is considered to be potentially curable. If prostate cancer is metastatic or widespread, it can be treated by the usage of anti-androgen drugs.

Antiandrogen drugs, along with hormone therapy, block the activity of androgens and reduces testosterone synthesis.

Indenza is an anti-androgen drug effective in treating MCRPC (metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and MCSPC (Metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer). Medical Oncology has recommended anti-androgen drugs like Indenza, which contains a vigorous ingredient Enzalutamide that blocks testosterone’s role in the adrenal glands.


Risk factors, such as ethnicity, age, or genetics, cannot be evaded. However, studies and medical research have suggested that a diet high in vegetables and fruits, low in fats, decrease prostate cancer risk. High water content fruits like grapes, watermelons, tomatoes contain lycopene, and nuts have effectively treated the risk. Recent studies have suggested that a plant diet for men is highly beneficial to reduce the risk of cancer. Men should limit calcium intake as high doses of calcium leads to the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer is asymptomatic at an early age and comes to the surface with increasing age. Therefore, men must visit a urologist check-up once a year. Choose food over medicine, avoid meat, sugary drinks, and alcohol, increase fruit juice intake and plant-based protein in the form of legumes, seeds, and nuts in the daily routine. Prevention of cancer with healthy eating and a good lifestyle.